This article focuses on the basics of the operating system. Microsoft Windows Server 2003. Here we look at:
- Unlike previous versions;
- Editions of this OS;
- Install Windows Server 2003;
- Server Roles
- Active Directory Basics
- Command line functions;
- Remote Desktop Setup;
- Setting up a DHCP server.
Microsoft Windows Server 2003. One of the most powerful server operating systems for PCs. Today, there are already newer versions of server operating systems, for example: Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, but today we’ll talk about this operating system because during this time, it has become so popular among system administrators, and many of them still do not want to switch to newer versions of the OS. This OS implements completely new system management and administration tools that first appeared in Windows 2000. Here are some of them:
- Active Directory. an extensible and scalable directory service that uses a namespace based on the standard Internet domain naming service (Domain Name System, DNS);
- InteiUMirror. a configuration environment that supports mirroring of user data and environment parameters, as well as central administration of software installation and maintenance;
- Terminal Services. Terminal Services that provides remote logon and management of other Windows Server 2003 systems
- Windows Script Host. Windows script server to automate common administrative tasks such as creating user accounts and event log reports.
Although Windows Server 2003 has a ton of other features, these four are the most important for administrative tasks. This applies to the maximum extent to Active Directory, therefore, for successful operation, the Windows Server 2003 system administrator must clearly understand the structure and procedures of this service.
If you already have experience with Windows 2000 servers, upgrading to Windows Server 2003 will be relatively easy, as it is the next step in upgrading your Windows 2000 platform and technology.
An extensive list of new features can be found in many books on new systems. In fact, the list of changes in Windows Server 2003 compared to the previous version is quite large, and it has features that will interest almost every administrator.
In addition to an extensive list of new features, Windows Server 2003 is also interesting because it is offered in 32-bit, 64-bit, and built-in (embedded) options. However, the most important differences relate to the four editions of the OS, which are listed below in order of functionality and, accordingly, price:
- Windows Server 2003 Web Edition
- Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition
- Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition
- Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition.
So that Windows Server 2003 can compete with other Web servers, Microsoft has released a truncated, but fully functional edition specifically for Web services. Feature set and licensing simplify the deployment of Web pages, Web sites, Web applications, and Web services.
Windows Server 2003 Web Edition supports 2 GB of RAM and dual-processor symmetric processing (symmetric multiprocessor, SMP) This edition supports an unlimited number of anonymous Web connections, but only 10 incoming connections of the server message block (server message block, SMB), and this is more than enough to publish content. Such a server cannot act as an Internet gateway, DHCP or fax server. Despite the possibility of remote server management using Remote Desktop software, it cannot play the role of a terminal server in the traditional sense: it can belong to a domain, but cannot be its controller.
This edition is a reliable, multifunctional server that provides directory, file, print, application, multimedia and Web services for small and medium enterprises. Extensive (compared to Windows 2000) the set of functions is supplemented by a number of components: MSDE (Microsoft SQL Server Database Engine). a version of SQL Server that supports five parallel database connections up to 2 GB in size; free pre-configured POPP service (Post Office Protocol v3), which together with the SMTP service (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) allows the node to play the role of a small standalone mail server; useful NLB tool (Network load balancing), which was present only in Windows 2000 Advanced Server.
Standard Edition supports up to 4 GB of RAM and four-processor SMP processing.
Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition aims to become a powerful server platform for medium and large enterprises. Its corporate functions include support for eight processors, 32 GB of RAM, eight-node clustering including clustering based on storage networks (Storage Area Network, SAN) and geographically distributed clustering, plus compatibility with 64-bit computers based on Intel Itanium, which already supports 64 GB of RAM and eight-processor SMP processing.
Other differences between the Enterprise Edition and the Standard Edition are listed below:
- Support for MMS (Microsoft Metadirectory Services), allowing you to combine directories, databases and files with the Active Directory directory service;
- “Hot»Adding memory (Hot add memory). you can add memory to supported hardware systems without shutting down or rebooting;
- Windows System Resource Manager (Windows System Resource Manager, WSRM), which supports the allocation of processor resources and memory between individual applications.
Datacenter Edition is available only as an OEM version, which is bundled with high-end servers, and supports virtually unlimited scalability: for 32-bit platforms. 32-processor SMP processing and 64 GB of RAM, for 64-bit. 64 processor SMP processing and 512 GB of RAM. There is also a version that supports 128-processor SMP processing based on two 64-processor sections.
Compared to 32-bit, the 64-bit editions of Windows Server 2003 running on Intel Itanium computers use processor speed more efficiently and perform faster floating point operations. Improvements in code and processing have significantly accelerated computational operations. The increased speed of access to the huge address space of memory allows improving the work of complex, resource-demanding applications, for example, applications for working with large databases, research applications and high-load Web servers.
However, some features are not available in 64-bit editions. For example, 64-bit editions do not support 16-bit Windows applications, real-mode applications, POSIX applications, and print services for Apple Macintosh clients.
Install and configure Windows Server 2003
When installing Windows Server2003, the system is configured according to its role on the network. Servers typically become part of a workgroup or domain.
Working groups. These are free computer associations in which each computer is independently controlled.
As an administrator, you have undoubtedly spent a lot of time installing Windows platforms. The following are important features to consider when installing Windows Server 2003.
- Installation from a bootable CD. Windows Server 2003 continues the tradition of installing from a CD. However, there is an innovation: installation from floppy disks is no longer supported;
- Improved graphical user interface during installation. During installation, Windows Server 2003 uses a graphical user interface (GUI), similar to the Windows XP interface. It more accurately describes the current state of the installation and the time remaining until its completion;
- Product Activation. Retail and trial versions of Windows Server 2003 require activation. Mass licensing programs such as Open License, Select License or Enterprise Agreement do not require activation.
After installing and activating Windows, you can configure the server using the well-designed Manage this server page (Manage your server), which automatically opens when you log in. This page simplifies the installation of certain services, tools, and configurations depending on the server role. Click the Add or Remove Role (Add Or Remove A Role), the Server Setup Wizard window appears (Configure Your Server Wizard)
If you select the Typical setting for the first server switch (Typical Configuration For A First Server), the wizard will make the server a controller of the new domain, install Active Directory services and, if necessary, DNS services (Domain Name Service), DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and RRAS (Routing And Remote Access)
If you select the Custom configuration (Custom configuration), the wizard can configure the following roles.
- File server (File server) Provides centralized access to files and directories for users, departments and the organization as a whole. Selecting this option allows you to manage user disk space by enabling and configuring disk quota management tools and speeding up the search in the file system by activating the Indexing Service (Indexing service)
- Print server (Print server) Provides centralized management of printing devices, giving client computers access to shared printers and their drivers. If you select this option, the Add Printer Wizard (Add printer), allowing you to install printers and related drivers. In addition, the wizard installs IIS 6.0 (Internet Information Services), configures the IPP printing protocol (Internet printing protocol) and Web-based printer management tools;
- Application Server IIS, ASP.NET (IIS Application Server, ASP.NET) Provides infrastructure components that are required to support hosting Web applications. This role installs and configures IIS 6.0, ASP.NET, and COM;
- Mail Server POPZ, SMTP (PORZ mail server, SMTP) Installs POPZ and SMTP so that the server can act as a mail server for POPP clients;
- Terminal server (Terminal server) Allows multiple users using the Terminal Services client software (Terminal services) or Remote Desktop Control (Remote desktop) connect to server applications and resources, such as printers or disk space, as if these resources were installed on their computers. Unlike Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 provides Remote Desktop Control automatically. Terminal server roles are required only when you need to host applications for users on a terminal server;
- Remote Access Server or VPN Server (Remote Access / VPN Server) Provides multi-protocol routing and remote access services for switched, local (LAN) and wide area (WAN) networks. Virtual Private Network (virtual private network, VPN) provides a secure user connection to remote sites through standard Internet connections;
- Active Directory Domain Controller (Domain Controller Active Directory) Provides directory services to network clients. This option allows you to create a controller for a new or existing domain and set up DNS. If you select this role, the Active Directory Installation Wizard (Active Directory Installation Wizard);
- DNS Server (DNS server) Provides host name resolution: DNS names are resolved to IP addresses (direct search) and back (reverse search) If you select this option, the DNS service is installed and the DNS Server Configuration Wizard (Configure A DNS Server Wizard);
- DHCP server (DHCP Server) Provides automatic IP allocation services to clients configured to dynamically obtain IP addresses. If you select this option, DHCP services are installed and the Create Area Wizard (New scope wizard), allowing you to define one or more ranges of IP addresses on the network;
- Media Stream Server (Streaming Media Server) Provides WMS services (Windows Media Services), which allow the server to transmit streams of multimedia data over the Internet. Content may be stored and provided upon request or in real time. If you select this option, the WMS server is installed;
- WINS server (WINS Server) Provides computer name resolution by resolving NetBIOS names to IP addresses. Install WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) is not required if you do not support older OSs, such as Windows 95 or NT. OSs such as Windows 2000 and XP do not require WINS, although older applications running on these platforms may need to resolve NetBIOS names. If you select this option, the WINS server is installed.
Video: Windows Server 2003 Remote Desktop
Domain Controllers and Member Servers
When installing Windows Server 2003, the system can be configured as a member server, domain controller, or stand-alone server. The differences between these types of servers are extremely important. Member servers are part of a domain but do not store directory information. Domain controllers store directory information and perform authentication and directory services within the domain. Isolated servers are not part of the domain and have their own user databases, so the isolated server also authenticates login requests.
Windows Server 2003 does not distinguish between primary and backup domain controllers because it supports a multi-host replication model. In this model, any domain controller can process directory changes and then automatically replicates them to other domain controllers. In a single-host replication model in Windows NT, this is not the case: the primary domain controller stores the master copy of the directory, and the backups store it. In addition, Windows NT only distributes the Security Account Manager database (security access manager, SAM), a Windows Server 2003 is an entire directory of information called a data warehouse (datastore) It has sets of objects representing user accounts, groups, and computers, as well as shared resources, such as servers, files, and printers.
Domains that use Active Directory are called Active Directory domains to distinguish them from Windows NT domains. Although Active Directory only works with one domain controller, additional controllers can and must be created in the domain. If ONE controller fails, others can be used to perform authentication and other important tasks.
In an Active Directory domain, any member server can be upgraded to a domain controller level without reinstalling the OS, as required by Windows NT. To turn a member server into a controller, you only need to install the Active Directory component on it. The reverse action is also possible: downgrading a domain controller to a member server if it is not the last domain controller on the network. Here’s how to upgrade or downgrade a server using the Active Directory Installation Wizard.
Command line functions
In Windows Server 2003, a ton of command line utilities. Many of them use the TCP / IP protocol, so it should be pre-installed.
As an administrator, you should know the following command line utilities.
- ARP. Displays and manages the hardware-software address binding used by Windows Server 2003 to send data over a TCP / IP network.
- FTP. launches the built-in FTP client;
- Hostname. displays the name of the local computer;
- IPCONFIG. Displays TCP / IP properties for network adapters installed on the system. It is also used to update and release DHCP issued addresses;
- NBTSTAT. Displays statistics and the current connection for the NetBIOS protocol over TCP / IP;
- NET. Displays a list of subcommands of the NET command;
- NETSH. displays and manages the network configuration of local and remote computers;
- NETSTAT. Displays current TCP / IP connections and protocol statistics;
- NSLOOKUP. Checks the status of a host or IP address when used with DNS;
- PATHPING. Checks network paths and displays information about lost packets;
- Ping. Tests a connection to a remote host;
- ROUTE. manages routing tables in the system;
- TRACERT. during quoted and I determine the network path to the remote host.
To learn how to use these tools, type the command name on the command line without parameters: in most cases, Windows Server 2003 displays help for its use.
Using the NET Command
Most of the tasks that correspond to subcommands of the NET command are easier to solve using graphical administration tools and control panel tools. However, these subcommands are convenient for quickly performing certain actions or for quickly receiving information, especially during Telnet sessions with remote systems.
- NET SEND. sends messages to users registered in the specified system;
- NET START. starts the service in the system;
- NET STOP. stops the service in the system;
- NET TIME. displays the current system time or synchronizes the system time with another computer;
- NET USE. connects and disconnects from the shared resource;
- NET VIEW. Displays a list of available network resources.
To learn how to use the NO command, enter NET HELP and the name of a subcommand, such as NET HELP SEND. Windows Server 2003 displays the necessary help information
Creating a Remote Desktop Connection
As an administrator, you can create remote desktop connections to Windows servers and workstations. In Windows 2003 Server, Terminal Services (Terminal services) and configure them to use in remote access mode. In Windows XP, remote desktop connections are enabled by default and all administrators are automatically authorized. In Windows Server 2003, Remote Desktop is automatically installed, but is disabled by default, and you must manually enable this feature.
Here is one way to create a remote desktop connection to a server or to a workstation.
- Click Start (Start), then Programs (Programs) or All programs (All programs), then Standard (Accessories), then Link (Communications), then Connect to Remote Desktop Connection. A dialog box of the same name opens;
- In the Computer field (Computer) enter the name of the computer you want to connect to. If you do not know the name, use the offered drop-down list or select the Browse For option in the list to open the list of the domain and computers in these domains;
- By default, Windows Server 2003 takes the current username, domain, and password to register on the remote computer. If you need other account information, click Options and go to the fields. Username (User name), Password (Password) and Domain (Domain);
- Click Connect (Connect) Enter the password if necessary and click OK. If the connection is created successfully, you will see the remote desktop window of the selected computer and get the opportunity to work with the resources of this computer. If the connection could not be created, check the information you entered and try again
With the Remote Desktop Connection (Remote Desktop Connection) it is simple to work, but it is inconvenient if you have to create remote connections to computers quite often. Instead, it is recommended that you access the Remote Desktop Console (Remote desktops) In it, you can configure connections to several systems and then easily switch from one connection to another.
DHCP. a tool for centralized management of IP allocation, but this is not limited to its functions. The DHCP server provides clients with basic information necessary for the operation of the TCP / IP network: IP address, subnet mask, information about the default gateway, primary and secondary DNS and WINS servers, as well as the DNS domain name.
DHCP Client and IP Address
A computer with a dynamic IP address is called a DHCP client. When the computer boots up, the DHCP client requests the IP address from the pool of addresses allocated to this DHCP server and uses the address for a certain time, called the lease term (lease) After approximately half of this period, the client tries to renew the lease and repeats these attempts until the successful renewal or before the lease expires. If the lease cannot be resumed, the client contacts another DHCP server. If the client successfully contacted the server, but its current IP address cannot be renewed, the DHCP server assigns the client a new IP address.
A DHCP server usually does not affect the boot or network entry procedure. Downloading a DHCP client and registering a user on the local system is possible even with a dysfunctional DHCP server.
When starting a DHCP client, it tries to find a DHCP server. If this succeeds, the client receives the necessary configuration information from the server. If the DHCP server is unavailable, and the client’s lease has not expired, the client polls the standard gateway specified when the lease was received using Ping. If successful, the client believes that he is probably located in the same network that he was in when he received the lease, and continues to use it. Failure to poll means that the client may be on a different network. Then autoconfiguration is applied. The client also resorts to it if the DHCP server is unavailable and the lease has expired.
DHCP Server Installation
Dynamic allocation of IP addresses is only possible if there is a DHCP server in the network. DHCP components are installed using the Windows Component Installation Wizard, and the server is started and authorized from the DHCP console. Only authorized DHCP servers can provide dynamic IP addresses to clients.
Install DHCP Components
To use Microsoft Windows Server 2003 as a DHCP server, follow these steps:
- In the Start menu (Start) select Programs (Programs) or all programs (All Programs), then click Administration (Administrative tools) and Server Setup Wizard
- Double click Next (Next) The current server roles appear. Highlight the DHCP server role and double-click Next. The wizard installs DHCP and launches the Create Area Wizard;
- If you want to immediately create a start area for the DHCP server, click Next (Next) and follow the steps in the “DHCP scope management“. Otherwise, click Cancel (Cancel) and create the necessary areas later.
- Click Finish (Finish) To use the server, you must authorize it in the domain, as described in the section Authorizing a DHCP server in Active Directory. Next, you need to create and activate all the necessary DHCP areas.
After installing the DHCP server, the dynamic IP addressing is configured and managed from the DHCP console. The command for its launch is located in the Administration menu (Administrative tools) There are two panels in the main window of the DHCP console. On the left are all the DHCP servers in the domain, by IP address, including the local computer, if the window is open on the DHCP server. On the right are detailed information about the selected object.
That, perhaps, is all that I wanted to tell you about the basics of the Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating system.