The Yorkshire Terrier (or York) is a decorative breed of dogs with an independent, and sometimes grumpy disposition. Despite the toy looks, these smart doggies are hunters. Initially they were bred in England for catching rats. Yorks weigh an average of only 2.5 kg. Therefore, their diet is made so that a small amount of food contains all the necessary vitamins and nutrients. This especially applies to feeding puppies.
Features of growth and development
Yorkshire terriers are distinguished by their tiny size and poor health. They are picky in food, easily become capricious. It is important to feed your puppy York with quality products and instill discipline in them from an early age.
The development of dogs is uneven. At four weeks of age, they have large heads, a long body and short legs. At about 40 days of life, the puppies already have all the milk teeth. By six months, the body is stretched first in length, and by the eighth month – in height. Around the year, York acquires its final dimensions.
When choosing a diet, it is important to remember that this breed has a sensitive stomach, a tendency to diseases of the liver and pancreas, gastritis, constipation, diarrhea, and also to various allergies.
Poor quality feeding, especially in the first months of life, can cause irreversible changes in the functioning of the body. It is on the power depends on the health of the teeth, health and appearance of these miniature dogs.
When planning the diet of your furry friend, remember about the balance of nutrients, a small volume of servings and the frequency of feeding. In the case of small breeds, these rules are doubly important, they can not be fed randomly. The owners of the kindness of their soul often treat puppies with food from their table. It is excluded. Pet food needs to be cooked individually.
Food should be of high quality so that the small portion contains all the necessary puppy. A rational diet should include half of the protein food, a quarter of carbohydrates and the same amount of fresh fiber (vegetables and fruits).
All food is heat treated and served warm. Meat before serving is cut into pieces and scalded with boiling water. Fish must be boiled and cleaned of bones. Do not often give varieties such as hake, haddock, pollock, as they prevent the absorption of iron in the dog’s body.
Seafood must be boiled and cleaned from the shell. In dishes it is useful to add a drop of oil (olive or flaxseed). Vegetables and fruits are grated or cut into small cubes.
In the diet of a puppy York must be present:
- Lean meat, better homemade (beef, chicken, rabbit, turkey);
- Offal (heart, udder, lungs);
- Lean sea fish;
- Seafood (natural shrimp, squid);
- Quail eggs (chicken can only yolk);
- Sour milk products (5% cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt);
- Buckwheat and rice groats;
- Vegetables (raw or boiled beets, carrots, pumpkin, bell peppers);
- Fruit (excluding citrus).
First, porridge brewed in milk. After 3 months, the cereal for puppies is boiled in meat broth. Olive and flaxseed oil nourishes food with amino acids, improves intestinal motility and helps the body absorb beneficial substances.
Sometimes you can pamper your pet with dried fruit. They contain essential trace elements.
Remember: an excess of protein in food can trigger allergies and urolithiasis.
The number of strictly contraindicated products include:
- Pork and lamb (cause liver disease);
- Bakery products and sweets (lead to diarrhea and skin allergies);
- Bones (spoiled enamel, intestinal perforation);
- Barley and rolled oats (allergies);
- Sausage and cheese, all salty and spicy foods (kidney disease);
- Milk (after 8 months is not digested and causes diarrhea);
- Legumes, potatoes, cabbage (indigestion and flatulence).
Natural nutrition can lead to allergic reactions. Another disadvantage is the deficiency of vitamins and nutrients.
If little York eats natural products, it should be fed with vitamin supplements. In this case, follow the dosage. Experts recommend:
- Excel Multi Vitamin for puppies;
- PETVITAL GAG from Canina;
- JOINT PLUS from the manufacturer Nutri-Vet;
- Polidex Polivit-Ca.
For the normal formation of the skeleton and cartilage tissue, puppies are recommended to give drugs with calcium and phosphorus.
On natural food it is difficult for a dog to provide a balanced diet. According to the majority of breeders, it is better to feed the puppies of the Yorkshire Terrier with industrial feed. The composition of dry mixes already includes all the necessary vitamins. In addition, well-chosen formula reduces the risk of underfeeding or overfeeding the dog, get an allergy or upset the digestive system.
The main thing is to choose premium and super premium feed. Otherwise, the imaginary savings will result in problems with the teeth, defects in the musculoskeletal system, allergies and simply uncleaned exterior of the pet.
Ready-made production formulas for Yorkies should include at least 40% of natural meat, be hypo-allergenic, and take into account the age characteristics of the dog. On the packaging of expensive mixtures indicated the true composition, nutritional value and the recommended dosage. High-quality industrial food is covered with a special compound that cleans teeth from plaque and tartar.
Puppies of this breed will use the following brand names:
- Royal Canin. The French company produces special feeds for Yorkies, as well as for dwarf breeds and small dogs with digestive problems.
- Orijen. A Canadian company processes products in a special way, preserving their taste and nutritional value. The feed contains not less than 40% of natural meat, there are no by-products, and medicinal herbs support health at the proper level.
- Akana Another Canadian firm. Produces feed only class "holistic" of high quality meat. In this line you will not find by-products, soy and corn. Proteins and vitamins in the form of vegetables and herbs strengthen the immune system.
- Bozita. The Swedish manufacturer produces various mixes for puppies. In products there are no offal and flavors.
- Monge. The Italian company offers super premium class feed. This breed will suit the line "Mini Puppy & Junior ”, which consists of only natural ingredients. The manufacturer does not replace meat by-products.
- Brit car The company from the Czech Republic produces superpremium feed, taking into account the age, activity and other features of the pet. Flavoring, offal and chemical additives are not used.
Also worth noting are the nutritional blends “Pro plan”, “Mera Dog”, “1st Choice” and “Hill’s”. These companies produce feed for different breeds.
In nature, dogs do not tend to eat dry food, so it is best to start feeding with wet mixtures. Gradually, canned food is replaced with dry food of the same manufacturer, intended for puppies of small breeds. When purchasing a Yorkshire terrier, ask the breeder how the baby was fed. The type and brand of the usual product change in stages, gradually mixing in new feed. Keep your pet always had access to fresh water.
Feeding newborn puppies
Until one month of age, young Yorkers feed exclusively on mother’s milk. If there is no lactation, a nipple and formula for newborns are purchased for feeding puppies. If this is not possible, the food is made independently. Cow, sheep or goat’s milk will do. The pounded boiled yolk is added to it. They feed babies in 1-2 hours. The temperature of the milk mixture should be 30-35 degrees.
Complement needs to be introduced in the fourth week, when puppies begin to be actively interested in the outside world. Due to their low weight and poor york health, breeders prefer to use high quality mixes specially developed for this breed.
Soak a few pellets of dry food in water and offer a small pet. If the mixture does not cause interest, you should not insist. Better to try again the next day. Dry food should be offered before puppies take the maternal breast. Usually on the third day after feeding, they begin to eat nutritious mixes with pleasure. Then the number of feedings can be increased.
To accustom yorks to natural food should be gradually. Add only one new product per day.
Food should be warm. A serving is one teaspoon. Keep track of your pet’s health. If there is no diarrhea or allergy, the new product can be given 2-3 times a day in the same amount.
The first food of puppies, except for mother’s milk, can be cottage cheese, finely grated vegetables, and liquid milk cereals. It should start with one feeding per day, immediately after sucking mother’s milk. Gradually, the number of meals is adjusted to five. In the fourth week, add a little raw meat to the diet. To avoid infection with helminths, it is pre-subjected to freezing. Then they make minced meat or cut into small pieces, washed with boiling water and mixed with warm water.
Many breeders prefer to feed little Yorkies exclusively on special industrial nutrition. So puppies get all the necessary vitamins and minerals, reducing the risk of abnormal development and allergies. In addition, dry food is easier to digest.
By the eighth week, maternal milk feeding ends. At this time, you need to clearly choose which diet the dog will be on. Mixed feeding is not recommended. Without urgent need, you don’t even need to combine dry food from different manufacturers.
The diet of a puppy at this age differs from the nutrition of an adult dog only in that the daily rate is divided into 5-4 small portions. Gradually increases the size of the pieces of food. At 9 weeks a puppy can eat only from a bowl.
Up to three months, the so-called "free food" is recommended. This means that little York should have a constant opportunity to eat fresh food. Such an approach will help to avoid lowering the level of sugar in the blood, which puppies of small breeds often encounter. At the same time try not to overfeed the dog. A puppy’s belly should not be swollen.
Often, breeders forget to tell future owners that small breeds are prone to bouts of hypoglycemia. Especially often this happens in puppies with a lack of weight.
During an attack, the baby becomes sluggish, cold, may lie without getting up, or may struggle in convulsions.
If this happens, pour 2 ml of sweet rosehip syrup or warm sugar syrup into your mouth. 5% glucose solution can be injected subcutaneously or poured into the mouth. Then put little York on a warm heating pad in a quiet place. After 20-30 minutes, he should recover.
Not only hunger can provoke hypoglycemia, but also any stress (vaccination, changing feed, new location, overexcitement from games and communication). This can be avoided if you treat the dog with care. Feed her on time, let’s rest and do not carry with you everywhere. Attacks usually pass by half a year.
When fed naturally, the ration of permitted foods remains the same, only the list of components required for consumption is increased. Little york should eat:
- Meat – daily;
- Fish – 1 time in 3-4 days;
- Egg – twice a week;
- Vegetables and fruits – daily.
Meat can no longer scroll in a meat grinder, and cut into slices. Vegetables and fruits are also served in small cubes.
Requirements for dry food remain the same. It is no longer necessary to soak it before serving, the puppy should chew the granules on its own.
It is important not to overfeed the puppy. At this age, york should receive between a quarter and a half a serving of an adult dog. The frequency of feeding is gradually reduced to 3-4 times a day. At this stage, it is recommended to introduce a feeding schedule and train your pet to discipline.
The importance of dressure
Little terriers are very different from each other. One puppy is active and tireless all day long, the other one prefers to lazily watch what is happening from his box. Restless Yorkies are often thin and selective in eating. Their sluggish fellows, on the contrary, love delicacies and are prone to gaining extra weight. Depending on the nature of the need to vary the amount of food and time of walking.
Do not spoil your pet. Representatives of this breed easily become capricious, it is impossible to do without proper training. In order to protect his fluffy aristocrat from diseases of the stomach, liver and pancreas, it is important to instill good manners in him since childhood.
A well-bred Yorkshire terrier should:
- Patiently wait for the food to be cooked;
- Eat only after permission;
- Indifferent to the master’s meal;
- Ignore the treats offered by strangers.
These rules will save not only your nerves, but dog’s stomachs. Start puppy training at 3 months of age:
- Feed at one and the same time in a strictly designated place;
- Remove the bowl 15-20 minutes after the start of the meal;
- Do not react to pet’s appealing looks during family dinners;
- Do not allow picking up pieces while walking.
From this age, Yorkies are transferred to special puppy food for half a year. The requirements for the composition and qualities of the mixtures remain the same.
Natural food should be as diverse as possible. Adhere to the following rules:
- Alternate different types of meat and fish products;
- In one day, give low-fat cottage cheese, in the other – kefir;
- Enter into the diet boiled heart;
- On the day, offer several types of vegetables and fruits.
This will provide the necessary range of vitamins and nutrients.
The feeding frequency is three times a day. By the age of one, the dog receives food twice a day.
In young Yorkies, puberty begins earlier than in other breeds. Therefore, castration is carried out in 5-7 months. An earlier operation can slow down the pet’s physical development, lead to urolithiasis and problems with urination. The night before the procedure, the puppy is not fed. After castration, ideally, a hungry diet on water or juice. Another day you can not give heavy food.