Every dog owner knows that the issue of nutrition is one of the main issues that one has to face literally from the first hours of a puppy in the house.
How to feed a dog to gain weight?
After all, how well the diet is chosen depends on the health and sometimes the life of your pet.
The dog’s need for food depends, as has already been said, on many factors: on the size of the animal, its lifestyle and living conditions, breed, climate, weather, age, individuality of the animal, etc.
Small dogs spend significantly more energy on their bodies than large dogs. Choleric dogs, very lively and temperamental, will spend more energy than their stolid congeners. A dog living in the winter outside, requires much more feed than the one that lies on the couch, near the warm battery. And the caloric content of such food should be higher due to the increased content of fats and carbohydrates. A young, energetic dog, even a service carrier or in training, also needs a more nutritious diet.
In order to properly feed the animal, it is important not only to choose a reasonable diet, but also to observe the same feeding regime. To feed the dog should be daily at a certain time, giving food that would contain all the necessary amount of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.
If, for any reason, the dog’s diet is not balanced, that is, it lacks either caloric content or any individual batteries, then the body compensates for the existing deficit from its internal reserves. At first, this does not lead to any noticeable changes. However, after some time changes in the animal’s body inevitably begin to occur, which, if not taken urgent measures, may become irreversible.
It should be noted that for a dog not only the number of feedings and the amount of feed, but also its quality matters. This is especially important for growing animals. It is necessary to take into account not only the presence in the diet of all components, but also their correct ratio.
It is believed that dogs do not need a varied diet. It is enough to choose a properly balanced diet and stick to it throughout dog’s life, considering only the age-related changes of the animal. This is the key to the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, the stable state of the skin and wool, etc. However, when feeding with home-made food, this rule is far from being always possible. But in any case, abrupt changes in diet are contraindicated.
You must also know what you can not feed the dog. Do not give pork. It is undesirable to give boiled bones – no benefit from them, but they clog the stomach and cause constipation. It is unacceptable to feed tubular bones, since the resulting sharp fragments can injure the digestive tract of the animal. Potatoes and legumes are difficult for dogs to digest and therefore are also undesirable in their diet. Spicy and smoked products, spices, a large amount of sweet absolutely unnecessary. It is strictly forbidden to feed the internal organs of dead animals.
The diet should be made, given at least a general idea of the calorie content of food and the energy needs of the dog. The following data will help to determine this correctly: the daily need of an adult dog of a large breed in feed is: in the summer of 2000-2100 kcal; winter 2300-2500 kcal.
To properly feed a dog, you must: know the body’s need for energy and nutrients; take into account the composition, properties and nutritional value of the original products; to exclude a monodiet for dogs, that is, food by only one product, even if it is meat; observe the dog’s diet: by this they mean the multiplicity and regularity of feeding, as well as the quantitative distribution of food during the day.
Here, for example, the mode of feeding puppies: at the age of 1 to 2 months – 6 times; from 2 to 3 months – 5 times; from 3 to 4 months – 4 times; from 4 to 8 months – 3 times; a puppy at the age of 8 months is fed 2 times.
The amount of food should match the size of the dog and, of course, the volume of its stomach, as well as the body’s ability to digest and absorb the food. Insufficient fullness, as well as overloading the digestive tract, adversely affect the activity of the intestines and the general health of the animal.
The important role played by the distribution of feed during the day. For example, when feeding three times a day, it is better to distribute it as follows: at 7 o’clock in the morning they give 30% of the daily ration, at 15 o’clock – 30% and at 21 o’clock – 40%.
As already mentioned, do not overfeed dogs. Excess food, and even with reduced physical exertion, invariably leads to obesity of the dog, because of which it develops various kinds of diseases: the metabolism is disturbed, the work of the heart, kidneys, liver, etc. worsens. It is considered better when the dog is slightly undernourished, than overfed. If there is an excess in the feed of any one product, negative consequences can also occur, for example, excess bones lead to constipation, and excess fat leads to indigestion.
Cooked food should have the right consistency; it should not be too thin or too dry. Food for dogs is usually prepared in the form of a thick soup or thin porridge. Although sometimes there are individual preferences. There are dogs that refuse to eat thick or, conversely, liquid food, in which case you should find a compromise. The volume of the daily diet depends on the thickness of the food. The thicker the food, the smaller its volume should be.
The diet of the dog must fully meet the needs of the animal in proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. Therefore, it is recommended to dogs to feed products not separately, but in the form of a semi-liquid mixture. Such food, as a rule, like dogs, and they willingly eat it. When an animal eats with pleasure, the secretion of digestive glands is more intense, and this contributes to a better digestibility of food.
In order to make up the correct daily ration of a dog, you should take into account many factors: the energy necessary for the dog, the condition of the animal, its gender, breed, body weight, and the ambient temperature.
It is very important to consider the physiological state of the animal. For example, a growing dog needs more food than an adult with the same body weight. A three-month-old Giant Schnauzer puppy weighing 17 kg needs more feed than an eight-year-old Middle Schnauzer bitch with the same body weight.
Animals that lead an active lifestyle, such as a guard dog or a hunting dog that runs all day and sleeps in the open air at night, require half more food than a former shepherd dog that has retired. At the same time, much depends on the individual characteristics of the dog’s digestion and its assimilation of the food eaten. It is possible that three dogs of the same breed, gender and the same mass will need different amounts of food. Metabolism in dogs is different, so on the same diet one dog can get fat, the other lose weight, and the third – to be normal.
With the domestic method of feeding animals, it will not be out of place to know that the interchangeability of products is possible, taking into account their energy and nutritional value. For example, 100 g of meat for nutritional value correspond to 80 g of the heart, 150 g of lungs, 150 g of scars, 200 g of intestines, 150 g of cottage cheese, and 100 g of oatmeal can perfectly replace 150 g of bread or 100 g of crackers.
In order to satisfy the nutritional needs of a dog with a body weight of 10 kg, a diet with an energy capacity of 780 kcal is necessary. Such energy requirements correspond to: 45 g of protein, 15 g of fat, 90 g of carbohydrates, fiber 10 g, calcium 1.8 g, phosphorus 2 g, vitamin A – 1100 IU, vitamin D – 75 IU per day.
This composition corresponds to the following set of products: meat (beef) – 190 g; grits (oatmeal) – 120 g; vegetables – 120 g; bone meal – 8 g; table salt – 2 g; multivitamins – 10 drops.
English experts recommend another, the so-called standard set of products: meat (boiled or raw) – 250 g; bread or cereal – 100 g; bone meal – 1 tsp; fish oil or multivitamin – 1 drop.
For dogs of a different body weight, this set of products, respectively, increase or decrease: for a dog weighing 5 kg, one will need half a ration, and a weight of 20 kg – two diets.
It must be said that the calculations, of course, are a good thing. But the dog is a living thing that can overturn the correctness of all your calculations. Therefore, in the end, the proof of the correctness of all theoretical calculations will be the physical condition of your dog and its condition. The dog must be average fat and keep a constant body weight, be cheerful and active in accordance with its age. If the dog loses weight, it means there is not enough food, if it has grown stouter, it means a lot of food.
Obviously, everyone knows the classic way that dog owners use to determine the size of a single portion: if a dog eats food “for podliz” and does not leave the bowl for a long time – it is not enough for it, if it leaves food in a bowl – a lot. As for “food in a bowl,” this is probably correct, but it’s hardly worth relying on “eating into a sap”, since there are such gluttons that, if you define portions in this way, the dog will hardly squeeze through the door after some time.
The need of dogs for energy (according to N.V.Zubko, 1987)
Adult dogs Young dogs
Dog size Body weight, kg Energy requirement, kcal / kg body weight Dog age Energy requirement, kcal / kg body weight
Very small 1-5 110 1-4 weeks. 220
Small 5-10 83,5 1-3 months. 265
Average 10-20 70 3-4 months. 200
Large 20-30 60 4-8 months. 136
Very large 30-60 53 8-12 months. 100
Daily dog’s need for vitamins per 1 kg of animal weight
Vitamin Growth For Adult Dogs
A 200 ME 100 ME
D 20 ME YUME
E 2.2 mg 2.2 mg
B1 (thiamine) 36 mcg 18 mcg
B2 (riboflavin) 0.08 mg 0.04 mg
Be (pantothenic acid) 200 mcg 50 mcg
B6 (pyridoxine) 44 µg 22 µg
B12 (cyanocobalamin) 1 μg 0.7 μg
Sun (folic acid) 8.8 µg 4.4 µg
PP (nicotinic acid) 400 mcg 200 mcg
Choline 55 mg 28 mg
Meat and meat products
Milk and dairy products
Fish, eggs, vegetables and fruits
Fat and grain products
How to cook dogs
IB Bogdanova, "Feeding the Dogs", 2004
What should the owner do if the dog does not grow?
Those dog breeders who have taken a puppy in order to get a future protector of the family and home in the future often panic that their puppy doesn’t grow, so the protector will leave it nasty. Is it so?
In fact, you, as the owner, do not have to think about why the puppy does not grow. Do everything to make the puppy just develop normally. Feed him high-quality food, do not forget about the various additives in food, buy vitamins for general development (ask in the vet pharmacy) and, as expected, take the puppy to the vet for mandatory vaccinations in time. Then you can be calm, because you, as the owner, have done everything in their power.
Now let’s look at the misconceptions associated with the growth of a puppy.
- Will the puppy be forever short? Do not worry if your puppy is not gaining weight. The puppy’s height and weight gain is an individual process. And now immediately forget about the problem of growth! You, as the owner, can only properly feed the dog, give the necessary vitamins and, of course, give moderate exercise in the form of games. That is, to do everything possible so that the puppy develops normally.
- Is growth and weight important in protecting the host? In fact, a dog weighing 20 kilograms and 40 kilograms will protect the owner equally well. Whether it is one, two or more opponents – the dog will cope with all those who encroach on the safety of its owner. Of course, for such selfless protection the dog should be trained by a canine (you yourself will not do it). But you can make contact with the dog: train it, spend more time together, pay attention in the form of joint walking and games.
- The puppy is not only too small, but also a coward – the protector from him, as you can imagine, will be a bad one.
What can feed a dog so that it gains normal weight
This statement is far from the truth, provided that the owner will seriously deal with the obedience of the dog, after which the cynologist will agree to accept him, who will give a course to protect the owner. From cowardice and fear and a trace will not remain after just a few lessons. But the owner must also be good to the dog, to earn her trust. Only this way she will be a good defender.
Conclusion. Height and weight decide little. Much more important is how well the dog obeys the owner, how it is ready to protect it. All this is 100% dependent on the owner of the animal. Any dog bred for the protection and protection, can already be considered good if it has a owner who will be seriously engaged in raising an animal.
Nutrition, exercise, obedience training and a course to protect the owner – this is the recipe for getting the perfect dog to protect the house and its owners.
Feeding dogs with natural food
The main controversy dog lovers – dry food or naturalka? It is comparable with the debate of vegetarians and meat lovers, and most likely will never be resolved.
Veterinarians give the right to choose the owner of the pet. And if you are one of those who prefer to cook food from natural ingredients, you need to clearly know what is allowed and what is better to exclude from the diet.
Before you make a choice, keep in mind that it is undesirable and difficult to transfer food from one mode to another. Firstly, it will have to be done gradually, and secondly, the dog may refuse the “new” food.
Needs and diet
To ensure normal metabolism, the daily intake of nutrients requires protein, carbohydrates, fats and water. The selection of the number and volume of individual, depending on age, weight, breed, season. On average, the amount of protein and fat should be half of all food, the rest – carbohydrates. Do not forget about vitamins and mineral supplements.
The cornerstone in the question of how to feed a dog with natural food – the correct distribution of products and the choice of the optimal volume. Until six months the dog should eat food in the amount of 7% of body weight, after a year the volume should be halved.
As a rule, menus monotonous menu. Only the type of food and the sequence of issue change. The main components: low-fat dairy products, lean meat and offal, vegetables and fruits. Cereal products, which are not recommended to give too much and often because of the detrimental effect on the body, act as an additive. Carbohydrates contained in cereals are easily absorbed by the body and can disrupt the intestinal microflora.
What to feed a dog naturalka
- Low-fat meat dishes from chicken, turkey, beef. Meat can be given raw or scalded with boiling water. Do not feed your favorite pork. It is recommended to alternate with boiled sea fish. Liver, hearts, lung should be given no more than once a week.
- Kashami. Prefer buckwheat, rice and millet. Exclude the rest.
- Thermally unprocessed vegetables – cabbage, zucchini, carrots, fruits – apples. Useful greens (parsley, dill).
- Kefir, ryazhenka, yogurt, cottage cheese are used as snack and tasty supplements. You can not pour the dog’s milk – it is poorly absorbed and adversely affects the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
Menu for the day
So, the dog’s diet consists of three groups of products. They must be included in the daily diet. Sample menu:
Slack. After the walk, give the pet a piece of corn grits (alternate weekly with other species). It can be cooked in water or broth.
How much dry food should a dog give per day?
After put the grated apple, but not sweet. This fruit contains in addition to easily digestible iron, various useful acids that prevent the development of obesity, liver disease and gall bladder.
The third ingredient of breakfast is cottage cheese, which can be flavored with ryazhenka. In the sour milk more protein than in meat. In addition, it is faster processed by the stomach and reduces the accumulation of fat in the liver.
Dinner. The second meal should be expanded to four components: meat, buckwheat, vegetables, bran.
Meat should not be cut into too small pieces. If the dog is not particularly fond of raw, it is recommended to pour boiling water for 3 minutes. Thus, the top layer will be boiled, and the middle raw.
From carrots, choose carrots, a week later cabbage, and after a while – beets, etc. Add some corn oil. It is better to mix small portions of bran with porridge. Also add herbs.
Provisions to be excluded:
- Sweets, coffee, tea – contain caffeine, which affects the heart and nervous system.
- Citrus, grapes, raisins, persimmon – in large quantities cause nausea and vomiting.
- Potatoes, rhubarb – detrimental effect on digestion.
- Raw eggs, fish – lead to a deficiency of vitamins or impede their digestibility.
- Onions, garlic – cause anemia.
What do dogs get fat from?
What is considered a normal physique?
To begin with, we will determine which physical form is considered optimal.
Norm. Ideally, the dog should feel the ribs under a small layer of subcutaneous fat. If you look at the pet from above, his body should be visually noticeable waist behind the ribs.
Lack of weight. The ribs are visible visually, they are easily felt, there is no layer of subcutaneous fat. The pelvic bones stand out. Pronounced waist.
Excess weight. Ribs hard to feel under a layer of fat. There are deposits in the lower back and near the root of the tail. There is no waist or it is barely noticeable.
In the photo from left to right: (top row) exhaustion, excessive leanness, perfect physique, (bottom row) overweight, obesity.
What is dangerous overweight dog?
It leads to a number of complications, including:
Diabetes. Elderly, overweight animals are at risk. If your pet develops diabetes, you will need insulin shots and medical food (or a strict diet if your pet eats only natural food).
Cardiovascular diseases. With overweight, the load on the heart increases. As a consequence, heart failure and shortness of breath appear.
High blood pressure. Veterinarians have noted: almost all dogs with overweight have high blood pressure. Probably, everyone had increased blood pressure at least once, so it is easy to imagine how this affects the quality of life of a pet. At such moments, he is definitely not up to walks or playing with a ball.
Diseases of the joints. Due to the increased load on the joints, the cartilage is abraded (up to full wear). Any movement will hurt the dog.
The problems associated with overweight, reduce the life of the animal. Excess weight is especially dangerous for puppies.
Overweight dogs become passive. The quality of their life is deteriorating.
Causes of weight gain and ways to solve the problem
1. Overeating from boredom, due to competition (if there are other animals in the house) or constant free access to food. Solution: feed the dog dosed. That is, to expose a portion of food at a certain time and, even if the pet is missing something, remove the bowl. Also need something to occupy the dog. For example, if you need to leave your pet alone in an apartment for the whole day, walk around it well in the morning and make sure that it has toys.
2. Conformity of calories consumed energy. To properly formulate a diet (with dry food or natural), it is better to consult a veterinarian. The principle is simple: a dog that moves a lot, for example, regularly goes with the owner to hunt, you need a more nutritious diet than the home. Accordingly, dog food with increased activity is not suitable for pets who spend most of the day in an apartment.
3. Lifestyle. A chain dog needs more calories, especially during periods when the temperature drops below 0 ° C. Extra energy is spent on maintaining normal body temperature. Therefore, the need for calories grows to 30%. So nutritious food does not need a domestic dog: unspent calories will be deposited in fat.
4. Food quality. If you choose the right food and proportions that cover the daily need for calories, and the dog still recovers, perhaps the reason for the treats. If you encourage your pet with delicacies, you must subtract their caloric value from the daily diet.
How to fatten a dog
Dogs tend to overeat when they are nervous. The reason for stress can be a lack of activity – the animal starts to get bored, it becomes apathetic. If you spend a lot of time with the dog and take a long walk with her, and her excitement still does not pass, contact your veterinarian. May require sedation.
6. Sterilization and castration. Male and female hormones increase the activity of dogs (this is necessary for them to raise offspring). And in neutered and sterilized metabolic rate varies, as the energy for nursing puppies is not needed. Therefore, it is important to choose special foods that contain fewer calories.
7. Predisposition Some breeds are more prone to obesity. Among them, for example, collies, Labradors, Cocker Spaniels, Basset Hounds, etc. Therefore, owners of dogs of these breeds need to more closely monitor the diet of the wards.
8. Medicines. Some therapeutic drugs affect metabolism. If, after taking the prescribed drugs, the pet has started to gain weight, you should consult with a veterinarian.
9. Disruption of the thyroid gland. This is one of the reasons for gaining weight. Only blood tests for hormones will help to reveal dysfunction.
There are also other diseases that can cause weight gain. The advice here is universal: periodically observe at the vet.
Animals often suffer from our cruelty or indifference, but excessive love can also do harm. If you don’t stop feeding your dog with handouts from the table – smoked, salty, sweet and overly fat – you will cause irreparable harm to the health of your beloved pet, gaining more weight and turning into sausage on legs, barely minting after you on a walk … And with that picture do you still consider yourself a kind and pitiful person? And if it is so, then it might be worthwhile to restrain oneself for the good of a friend.
About 40% of dogs turned into carcass swollen with fat due to improper feeding and lack of physical activity. The degree of fatness of an animal is determined visually: if the dog’s waist is already indistinguishable, two bones in the croup area (maklaki) are not detected at all, and the ribs under the fat layer are practically not felt, it is time to put your pet on a diet. Somewhere in feeding a four-legged you made a mistake!
Perhaps you miscalculated the amount of food your pet should receive daily. Usually a healthy dog shows interest in any manipulations with a bowl, gladly takes to the meal and quietly departs, sated. Ideally, the bowl is emptied quickly enough – there is nothing left in it. If the bowl is long and carefully licked – it means there was not enough food. However, there is also an increased greed for food, when a dog eats, containing such an amount of food in the stomach that clearly exceeds its capabilities and needs. Then take it for granted that your pet is always a little hungry. In the end, this is an absolutely normal condition for a predator.
The most elementary factor that you should take into account is the dependence of the quantity and quality of food on the physical activities your dog receives. A common mistake is when the activity decreases, the animal continues to feed in the same way as before. For example, in winter, most of us go outside with a leash in our hands not so often and eagerly as in summer, therefore, the pet’s diet should be revised even before it began to gain weight. Opened the season of outdoor activities? Slightly increase the portion. Increasing energy consumption is effective against overweight – an active lifestyle, speeding up the process of burning fat, will benefit both you and your dog.
There is no need to blindly follow the dosages of food recommended on packages – they are averaged, and for a particular animal may be either greatly exaggerated, or, conversely, insufficient. The optimal amount of feed is one that helps maintain an ideal weight, and is determined only by experiment.
A common mistake is to feed an established dog with the same amount of food that was given to her at a time when she was a teenager, without taking into account that the metabolic process slows down with age. An adult animal feeds twice a day, in the morning and in the evening; in the heat can be fed once. If the dog refused to eat, and you are sure that she is healthy, then do not panic – your pet just arranged a fasting day. If you need a quadruped to lose weight, then do not reduce the number of feedings to one, it is better to divide the reduced portion into two, and if the dog is very hungry, then into three parts.
The weight of the dog can be reduced in two ways: by reducing the portion or by switching to a diet with a lower calorie content. In the first case, the usual diet is reduced by 30-70%, this is the easiest (if you do not suffer from excessive sentimentality) and a quick solution to the problem. The second method has the advantage, since the dog will receive enough proteins, vitamins and minerals. A portion of the special lightweight feed will have a sufficiently large volume, which creates the illusion of fullness in the animal. Such professional foods from well-known manufacturers, as a rule, are balanced in essential nutrients, contain a minimal amount of fat and a sufficiently large amount of fillers. In order to imitate the feeling of saturation, products containing high-quality carbohydrates or proteins, but more digestible for longer (eg barley) are used: fiber and water make the food more voluminous, as if "dissolving" calories in it. Supplements such as L-carnitine also help burn excess fats in the body.
However, when getting rid of obesity, special food is only an aid. It is designed for the consciousness of the owners: the dosage must be strictly observed, and the amount of food given outside the feedings should approach zero. Otherwise, all efforts will be in vain.
Understand what you need to feed your dog so that she quickly gained weight
A prerequisite for a successful diet for a person is to give up bad habits: eating between meals, watching TV, etc. The same can be attributed to our pets. Changing the lifestyle of animals and their owners is also very important – so the dog should not be in the kitchen or in the dining room during your meal. If you want to successfully deal with obesity of a dog, then you can write down every day everything that it eats, including delicacies – this measure will make you more consciously treat your pet’s diet. Ideally, you need to completely abandon the additional treats, and the promotion of food to replace, for example, the game with the owner. But if this is not possible, then as a treat it is better to give pieces of vegetables or fruits.
No diet will be effective without the owner realizing that the measures taken are really necessary: the dog is fat and this may adversely affect its health. No weight loss program will bring results if the owner does not fully agree with it. When treating, reasonable goals should be set: for animals whose weight is very large, it is recommended that it be gradually reduced.
During the diet, it is advisable to weigh the dog weekly. Results can be recorded on a chart. In general, it is useful to regularly put on your quadruped weights: a stable optimal weight is an indicator of good health. In turn, the loss or weight gain indicates a violation of the natural balance in the body. Therefore, after reaching the optimum weight, it should be kept within the required limits.
The first time after the end of the diet, the quantity and quality of feed should be left the same as they were at the end of the course of the diet. Then the diet is gradually adjusted to maintain optimal weight. After achieving the desired result, the dog can be fed with low-calorie food of industrial production or natural food that does not contain a large amount of fat.
Dogs, like people, have a hereditary predisposition to overweight. According to studies such breeds include: beagle, basset hound, core terrier, dachshund, and most of the representatives of spaniels and retrievers. If your quadruped is at risk, be especially vigilant about the amount of feed it receives from you and your family members. Obesity affects the work of all internal organs, especially the heart and liver, and can provoke or strengthen such painful conditions as damage to the ligaments and joints, diseases of the spine. Overfeeding is bad for digestion and reduces performance.
In other words, the health, well-being and longevity of your dog depends to a large extent on you – do not turn your pet into a sacrifice of your weakness. If you really love your dog and want it to live as long as possible, don’t feed it!
You can try to actually diet, in which about sixty percent of the usual dog food is replaced by cooked pumpkin – a valuable therapeutic and dietary product. Most dogs love this vegetable, which is a rich source of fiber, vitamins, mineral salts and organic acids. It is believed that pumpkin helps to speed up metabolic processes in the body and prevents obesity.
Dog handler, breeder breed Irish terrier Ksenia Sizova.