Storage of information in a personal computer
Storage of information in a personal computer
A computer is a device that is specifically designed to work with information.
RAM is a memory intended for temporary storage of data and instructions necessary for a processor to perform operations. RAM is made in the form of memory modules (flat plates with electrical contacts, on the sides of which are large integrated memory circuits). RAM modules have a large number of indicators (type, type, timings, frequency), which significantly affect the memory.
During operation, the computer’s memory accesses one of two types of so-called “repositories” of information. Volatile computer memory. RAM (Random Access Memory) is a repository of information that must be constantly updated so that it stores various information that is currently needed for the computer to work. It automatically clears when the computer is unplugged.
Static computer memory. ROM (Permanent Storage Device) is a storage of information designed for permanent and long-term storage of files that must be in the computer’s memory after the computer is disconnected from the power supply.
External (long-term) memory is a place of long-term storage of data (programs, calculation results, texts, etc.) that are not currently used in the computer’s RAM. To work with external memory, you must have a drive (drive. a device that provides recording and reading information) and a storage device. media. Devices are usually divided into types and categories in connection with their operating principles, operational and technical, physical, software and other characteristics.
Floppy disks. Removable magnetic disks (floppy disks) are inserted into the computer through a special slot in the system unit. the drive. In fact, this is not one disk, but a group of disks that are magnetically coated and rotate at high speed. The main parameters of floppy disks are: technological size (measured in inches), recording density (measured in multiple units) and full capacity.
Hard magnetic disks or HDD, hard drive. the main storage of information of large volumes, based on the principle of magnetic recording, is hidden inside the body of the system unit. It is the main data storage device in most computers. Information in the HDD is recorded on hard plates coated with a layer of ferromagnetic material. The storage medium is combined with a drive, drives by an electronics unit and is usually installed inside the system unit of a computer.
External hard drives are dynamic storage systems. They are convenient for doing business, provide freedom of creativity, interaction anytime, anywhere.
The external hard drive is easy to use due to its portability; it supports a high-speed interface for fast data transfer.
Optical drives and disks. The collective name for storage media made in the form of disks, the reading of which is carried out using optical radiation. Disks are usually flat, their base is made of polycarbonate, on which a special layer for storing information is applied. For reading information, a laser beam is usually used, which is sent to a special layer and reflected from it.
Laser drives and disks. Laser drives (CD-ROM and DVD-ROM) use the optical principle of reading information. Laser CD-ROM (CD. CompactDisk, CD-ROM) and DVD-ROM (DVD. Digital Video Disk, digital video disc) discs store information that was recorded on them during the manufacturing process. Writing new information on them is impossible, which is reflected in the second part of their names: ROM (ReadOnlyMemory. read only). Such discs are produced by stamping and have a silver color. On CD-RW and DVD-RW (RW. ReWntable, rewritable) discs, which have a “platinum” hue, information can be recorded repeatedly.
The first generation of optical discs: laser disc, compact disc, magneto-optical disc.
Second generation optical discs: DVD, MiniDisc, Digital Multilayer Disk, DataPlay, Fluorescent Multilayer Disc, GD-ROM (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory), Universal Media Disc.
Third generation optical discs: Blu-ray Disc, HDDVD, Forward Versatile Disc, Ultra Density Optical, Professional Disc for DATA, Versatile Multilayer Disc.
Fourth generation optical discs: HolographicVersatileDisc, SuperRensDisc.
Flash memory. Flash memory is a non-volatile memory type. It is a microcircuit placed in a miniature flat case. To read or write information, a memory card is inserted into special drives built into mobile devices or connected to a computer via a USB port. Flash-memory cards do not include moving parts, which ensures high data safety when used in mobile devices (laptop computers, digital cameras, etc.). There are a lot of them: SD, MMC, CompactFlashType I and II, MemoryStick, MemoryStickDuo, TransFlash, miniSD, microSD, RS-MMC, SmartMedia, MiniDisk, etc.
Co mpactFlash is perhaps the oldest flash memory: the first copy was released back in 1994 by SanDisk. In total there are two types of CompactFlash cards: CF Type I, CF Type II, and they differ only in the thickness of the case.
SD (SecureDigital). was also created by the efforts of SanDisk, Panasonic and Toshiba. These cards use cryptograms (data encryption), which protects data from unauthorized copying or overwriting.
MMC (MultiMediaCard). is the result of the work of SanDisk and Siemens. Each MMC has its own memory controller. over, the thickness of multimedia cards is almost a third less than that of the “spy” brother, which allows the use of MMC-drives in various miniature devices.
RS-MMC (ReducedSize MMC). also known as MMCmobile. They differ from MMC only in reduced sizes and are used mainly in mobile phones.
Memory Stick Duo is an evolution of the Memory Stick itself. The size and power consumption of the cards decreased, but at the same time, the maximum capacity decreased. The rest is completely analogous to the usual MS.
SmartMedia is a standard that was developed by Toshiba back in 1995. The features of this standard can be considered very low power consumption and the absence of its own controller, the operating speed is extremely low and the maximum memory capacity is only 256 MB, which is negligible by today’s standards, especially considering the size of the card
XDPicture (ExtremeDigital). were created by FujiFilm and Olympus to replace the outdated SmartMedia format. These cards are used mainly in digital cameras of these companies.
Also recently, USB flash drives (“flash drive”, USB-drive, USB-drive), which almost supplanted floppy disks and CDs, have become widespread.
Storing Information Online
The Internet is the unification of computers around the world into a single information network. In another way, the Internet is called the global computer network.
To connect computers using ordinary telephone lines and a modem device. The modem converts the information to a form suitable for transmission by telephone.
Thus, the information stored around the world becomes available to everyone who has a computer, telephone and modem.
Telephone communication is not the only way to connect computers. Information is transmitted much faster via optical cables and via radio. These channels are gradually replacing telephone connections on the Internet.
We know that programs and data in a computer are stored on the hard drive as files.
A file is a certain amount of information that has a name and is stored in long-term (external) memory.
File name. a sequence of characters that allows the user to navigate the file system. A file name consists of two parts separated by a dot: a file’s own name and an extension that determines its type. A custom file name can contain from 1 to 255 characters. In addition to Latin, the use of the Russian alphabet is allowed.
An extension is a combination of letters and numbers from one to three characters long, which complements the name itself, but more often indicates the format and type of data stored in the file. It is separated by a dot from the actual file name and is an optional part of it. Extensions are used to identify the type (format) of the file. With their help, the user and computer software can determine the type of data stored in the file.
The extension is usually indicated as rar, i.e. an asterisk and a point where an asterisk symbolizes any file name are added in front of extension symbols.
The extension can indicate not only the type of information that is stored in the file (image, media file, text file), but also the way this information is encoded. For example, gif, jpg, bmp, raw, png, etc. are extensions of image files, but the methods of encoding images in such files are different, and not every program that opens one type can open another.
There are files that do not have an extension, usually these are system files.
The file is opened by the program in which it was created, or by the universal program.
Examples of file extensions of different types:
doc,, xdoc, rtf, txt, pdf. text documents (the contents of such files are text and they are opened in the program for working with text. Letter.doc, Catalog.xls, text.txt).
.jpg, gif, jpeg, bmp, raw, png, emf, ico, tif, tiff, jp2, pcx, tga, wbmp. graphic image (photos and pictures. Figure.gif, Nature.tif, Photo.jpg, Figure.bmp )
.html, htm, xhtm. Internet page (Book.htm, Windows.hlp, Book.html).
.exe, com. executable file (contains programs ready for execution. ACDSee9.exe, Command.com).
.rar, zip, 7z. archived file (Abstract.zip, Abstract.rar).
.avi, mpeg, mpg, mkv, 3gp, mp4, wmf. video file extensions (the contents of such video files and they open in the players. Cl. avi, Movie.mpeg).
.mp3, mp2, wave, wav, amr, wma, aac, ogg, midi, mid, kar– extensions of audio files (the music file and opening it must be in the player program. Song.mp3).
Files with similar contents or the same purpose can be stored in folders (directories). Directories (folders), in turn, can also be combined into directories. Thus, an ordered structure of files and directories is formed on the disk, which allows you to quickly find the information you need. Such a structure is called a file system.
File system. part of the operating system for storing files and organizing directories, which is necessary for the orderly placement of data and programs in external memory.
File structure can be multi-level and single-level.
Practical lesson №6-2 Topic: File as a unit for storing information on a computer. Attributes of a file and its volume. Accounting for file volumes during their storage, transfer.
Practical lesson №6-2
Subject: File as a unit for storing information on a computer. Attributes of a file and its volume. Accounting for file volumes during their storage, transfer.
Number of hours: 1
The purpose of the lesson: to record the volume of files during their storage, transfer.
Assignment: To get acquainted with the theoretical provisions on this topic, to complete practical exercises, to formulate a conclusion.
The content of the report on the results of the practical lesson
The report should contain:
3.Results of task 3, 4, 5
4. Conclusion on work (it is necessary to indicate the types of work performed, goals achieved, what skills acquired during the course of its implementation)
Guidelines for implementation:
1. Brief theoretical information
File. this is a certain amount of information having a name stored in the long-term memory of a computer.
The file name is divided into two parts by a dot: the file name (prefix) and the extension (suffix), which determines its type (program, data, etc.).
The file name is given by the user, and its type is usually set automatically by the program.
File system. it is a functional part of the operating system that provides operations on files. The file system allows you to work with files and directories (directories) regardless of their contents, size, type, etc.
The file system defines the general structure for naming, storing and organizing files in the operating system.
Hierarchical file system:
Various operations can be performed on files:
Copy (a copy of the file is placed from one directory to another)
Move (the file itself is moved to another directory)
Delete (file entry is deleted from the directory)
Renaming (changing the file name), etc.
Rules for creating a file name: 1. You cannot use the following characters that are reserved for special functions:? ,; : = / \ “|  SPACEBAR
2. In long names the following characters cannot be used 😕 : / \ “
Task 3. Suggest options for names and types for the files listed below. Transfer the table to the notebook and fill it out.